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This may be easier to achieve than a similar revolution in plant design or construction. Indeed, where evidence indicates that existing practices fall short of required or desired targets, it may be preferable to advocate a revolutionary approach to automation. Where this is the chosen course, careful note must be taken of any re-training implications which arise. (h) Cultural and social aspects The correct application of automation to a process not only enhances the efficiency, productivity and reliability of the human component in 30 a system but in doing so, it reduces, or at least substantially modifies, the contribution of the human in the system.

3. 1. General data The design team requires access to relevant sources of human factors data, initially to provide a yardstick for general function assignment decisions, and subsequently for refinement of those decisions to meet system performance requirements. The general human factors literature includes data on the effects on human performance of variations in areas such as : general user-system interface design information system design and layout computer generated information presentation control system design and layout device labelling human cognitive functioning (memory and perception) - inter-person communications - human error prevention and recovery design of documents and procedures workplace environment variables design and use of protective clothing and equipment work design and organization - work crew organization and functioning - work shift scheduling.

A similar proportion of the events are commonly traceable to deficiencies in design and manufacturing. There is the underlying fact that design and manufacturing deficiencies, to the extent they stem from human activities, are also attributable to human performance problems. The data indicate that a significant proportion of human errors could have been avoided if designers, trainers and operations managers had paid more attention to recognising human limitations. Information from studies in various countries indicates a similar picture, in that whilst the exact proportions of errors differ, as do the classification schemes, the clear message is that human performance plays a large part in determining overall system performance.

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Role of Automation and Humans in Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA TECDOC-668)

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