By Nazzareno Diodato, Gianni Bellocchi
This publication describes fresh advancements within the modeling of hydro-climatological procedures in time and area. the subject brings jointly quite a lot of disciplines, equivalent to climatology, hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, with examples of difficulties and comparable modeling methods. Parsimonious hydro-climatological types carry the capability to simulate the mixed results of rainfall depth and distribution styles within the absence of precipitation documents for brief time periods (e.g. day-by-day to sub-hourly) and over huge parts (e.g. neighborhood to continental). during this booklet, we express how the main of parsimony should be with out sacrificing intensity in looking to comprehend quite a few panorama and floor strategies that come with hydrologic phenomena. Geographically conversing, the focal point of the booklet is on Mediterranean environments. during this sector, that's characterised by way of a posh morphology, soil erosion via water is a massive reason for panorama degradation and the fragility of ecosystems is amply documented. through exploring interactions among erosive storms and land with the aid of modeling ideas created at various scales, the ebook investigates intimately the climatic implications for the Mediterranean panorama so one can bridge historic and modern learn, which makes it certain in its approach.
The ebook presents a helpful source for environmental scientists, whereas additionally supplying a tremendous foundation for graduate and postgraduate scholars drawn to learn on hydrological cycles and environmental changes.
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Additional resources for Storminess and Environmental Change: Climate Forcing and Responses in the Mediterranean Region
8 Conclusion Precipitation is a complex phenomenon because its genesis requires: – a source of moisture generally represented by the boundary layer – morphology of the relief, circulatory structures at different scales and vertical thermal profile favorable to the rising of air mass with development of clouds – microphysical characteristics of cloud environment favorable to magnify droplets or ice crystals to give precipitation. These aspects have been associated to the Mediterranean environment in order to highlight its peculiarity in terms of precipitation and more specifically its ability to give rise to extreme precipitation events.
2011). Conditions for clouds development are (1) the presence of a dynamic environment favorable to air lift and (2) an air mass rich in water vapor rising from the boundary layer up to the free atmosphere. These two conditions are often satisfied in the Mediterranean basin during the winter semester (from October to March) when weather is periodically affected by westerlies. On the other hand these pre-requisites are rarely verified during the summer semester (from April to September) when weather, often ruled by the subtropical anticyclone, is usually warm and dry.
Mediterranean cyclones inherit from the source ULTs a “drop” of mid tropospheric cold air and a PV maximum in upper troposphere and are seat of intense stratosphere–troposphere exchange often associated to the descent of stratospheric ozone (Nieto et al. 2008). The life cycle of a COL (Nieto et al. 2005) can be conceptualized into four stages: the upper-level trough, tearoff, cut-off and final stage. g. g. Palme´n and Newton 1969). The dynamic of the system is the result of three main airstreams that are the Warm Conveyor Belt (WCB), fed by the low tropospheric warm air advected from 2 Extreme Rainfalls in the Mediterranean Area 21 Fig.
Storminess and Environmental Change: Climate Forcing and Responses in the Mediterranean Region by Nazzareno Diodato, Gianni Bellocchi