By Michael Adams, Laurel J. Brinton, R.D. Fulk
The relationships between information, proof, and technique in English old linguistics are perennially vexed. This volume—which levels chronologically from outdated to Present-Day English and from manuscripts to corpora—challenges a wide selection of assumptions and practices and illustrates how diversified tools and techniques build proof for ancient linguistic arguments from an more and more huge and numerous physique of linguistic information.
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Additional info for Studies in the History of the English Language VI
Bell. In (28), the free adjunct further elaborates/specifies the situation of troubling expressed in the matrix clause. Yet, its potential instrumental reading becomes evident, as a paraphrase with by is possible as well (‘The devil makes me suffer by fighting all day against me’). , “become a part of the semantics of the clause combining relationship” (Killie and Swan 2009: 348‒349). Such bridging contexts are also found in the Dutch data, as is shown in (29) and (30): in (29), the free adjunct denotes additional information as well as temporal simultaneity; in (30), it provides a temporal as well as a causal backdrop for the matrix clause.
The semantic types “add/acc” and “ex/spec” largely make up the category of free adjuncts in Middle English and Middle Dutch (periods M1 and M2), showing similar frequencies. In the periods E1 and E2, as well as in L1, add/acc and ex/ spec take up almost an identical share of the total number of free adjuncts in English and Dutch. Examples of add/acc and ex/spec free adjuncts in English and Dutch are in (24) and (25), respectively. The ermyte partyd fro hir with heuy cher & came hom a-ʒeyn to Lynne, excusing hir to hir confessowr & to oðer frendys, (…) (1592–1603, PPCME2) (addition) The development of free adjuncts in English and Dutch 27 b.
Dat betekent dat er een opmerkelijke parallel is met de ontwikkelingen in het Engels, waar evenzeer de zg. progressive in de zestiende eeuw sterk toeneemt in frequentie (van der Horst 2008: 863). , to express a continued action or condition (…). It would appear that such combinations (not only with zijn, but to a certain extent with worden and blijven as well) dramatically increase in frequency near the end of the sixteenth century. ] (translation ours) As can be inferred from Figure 2, this development coincides with that of the free adjuncts.
Studies in the History of the English Language VI by Michael Adams, Laurel J. Brinton, R.D. Fulk