By Ian Howard
From the conflict of Maldon in 991 through the reign of Æethelred (the Unready), England was once invaded via Scandinavian armies of accelerating measurement and ferocity. Swein Forkbeard, king of Denmark, performed an important half in those invasions, which culminated within the domination of britain and the lengthy reign of his son, Cnut. This research of the invasions demonstrates past doubt that Æthelred used to be no indolent and valueless king who bribed invading Vikings to leave: his courting with the Scandinavian armies was once extra complicated and extra attention-grabbing than has been intended. it really is both obvious that Swein used to be greater than a marauding Viking adventurer: he used to be a cosmopolitan baby-kisser who laid the rules for an exceptional northern empire which used to be governed through his descendents for a few years after his loss of life. New perception into this intriguing interval of English background is won by means of targeting the actions of Swein Forkbeard and, after his dying in 1014, the Danish warlord Thorkell the Tall, either impressive warriors and political leaders of what's also known as 'the moment Viking Age'. Many components resulting in the invasions and conquest are investigated via a serious research of the chronology of occasions, an evidence of the commercial historical past, plotting the itineraries of the Scandinavian armies, and a clean exam of the assets, together with the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Encomium, and John of Worcester's Chronicle. IAN HOWARD has a PhD from Manchester college and is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales. After a occupation in and trade, he has lower back to full-time learn and has produced numerous papers overlaying quite a few facets of early medieval heritage.
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Extra resources for Swein Forkbeard's Invasions and the Danish Conquest of England, 991-1017 (Warfare in History)
54 and n. 3, reference is made to Scandinavian mercenary forces being settled in the south-west in the final decade of the tenth century. 2% of the total population of England, which is not significant. However, in the south-west region a concentration of numbers of this order might amount to between 1% and 10% of the total population depending upon the definition of ‘region’. Also, it is evident that people of Scandinavian extraction were moving into English Mercia. 39 The ASC specifies the payment of very large sums of money to Scandinavian forces.
1–17. 46 Jónsson, Heimskringla, ‘Olaf Tryggvason saga’, K 21 to K 32. 24 Swein Forkbeard’s Invasions and the Danish Conquest of England Obviously, English wealth was a great attraction but that is not sufficient in itself to explain why Scandinavians tended to avoid major expeditions into a western continental Europe which was closer to their homeland and had plenty of wealth to be looted or extracted as tribute. The explanation is to be found in a significant development in military technology, a development that centred upon the deployment of mounted horsemen in battle.
See also the debate between Lawson and Gillingham in EHR 1989 and 1990. 42 This ‘velocity of circulation’ factor is described and explained in Howard, ‘The Fiduciary Element in English Silver Coins’. See n. 29, above. Explaining the Invasions and Conquest 23 English Military Weakness During the last decade of the tenth century and the first two decades of the eleventh century England was the destination of many Scandinavian adventurers, arriving in comparatively large numbers on almost an annual basis.
Swein Forkbeard's Invasions and the Danish Conquest of England, 991-1017 (Warfare in History) by Ian Howard