By Talmy Givon
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Extra resources for Syntax: An Introduction
Change, learning, development and evolution thrive on subtle, gradual re-interpretation of categorial boundaries. Cognitively, learning is heavily dependent on judgements of similarity, analogy and metaphoric extension. Such judgements are, in principle, impossible to accommodate within a rigid, discrete categorial system. It is only the residual ﬂexibility of prototype-based categories that can accommodate growth and learning, historical change and, ultimately, phylogenetic evolution. 1 Iconicity vs.
In non-human primates, the supporting neurology for both semantic and episodic memory is essentially the same one as in humans (Squire 1987; Petri and Mishkin 1994). However, observing the natural use of anything remotely resembling human grammar — 11 12 Syntax morphology and syntax — in communicating animals, or teaching it to them, has been almost a uniform failure (Premak 1971; Terrace 1985). Grammar is a much more abstract and complex code than the sensory-motor codes of the lexicon. At its most concrete, the primary grammatical signal involves four major coding devices: (10) Coding devices of the primary grammatical signal a.
Passive: Adjectival-stative: Perfect-resultative: Predicate-adjective: It was broken (by someone) It is broken It has been broken It is big B. Nominalization In some languages, such as Ute, a passive clause arose diachronically from, and still resembles structurally, a nominalized clause, as in (Givón 1980): (22) a. Passive múusa-ci paxá-ta-pu =ga cat-obj kill-pass-rem ‘The cat was killed’ b. Verb-phrase nominalization múusa-paxá-ta ka-’áy-wa-t ’ura-’ay cat-kill-nom neg-good-neg-nom be-imm ‘Cat-killing is bad’ C.
Syntax: An Introduction by Talmy Givon