By Don Ringe, Ann Taylor
This booklet, the second one quantity in A Linguistic historical past of English, describes the advance of previous English from Proto-Germanic. Like quantity I, it really is an inner historical past of the constitution of English that mixes conventional old linguistics, glossy syntactic idea, the examine of languages in touch, and the variationist method of language change.
The first a part of the e-book considers the advance of Northwest and West Germanic, and the northern dialects of the latter, with specific connection with phonological and morphological phenomena. Later chapters current a close account of alterations within the previous English sound process, inflectional method, and syntax. The publication goals to make the findings of conventional ancient linguistics obtainable to students and scholars in different subdisciplines, and likewise to undertake methods from modern theoretical linguistics in any such approach that they're obtainable to quite a lot of ancient linguists.
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Extra resources for The Development of Old English
Juka ‘yoke (of oxen)’) > ON ok, OE ġeoc, OHG joh; PGmc *brukanaz ‘broken’ (Goth. brukans) > OE brocen, OHG gibrohhan; PGmc *duhtēr ‘daughter’ (Goth. daúhtar) > ON dóttir, OE dohtor, OF dochter, OS dohtar, OHG tohter; PGmc *uhso˭ ‘ox’ (Goth. aúhsn-) > ON oxi, OE, OF oxa, OHG ohso; PGmc *hulaz ‘hollow’, neut. ; see the discussion in the addenda and corrigenda) ~ *þulai‘endure’ (Goth. þulan) >! ; Goth. fraguldans ‘repaid’) > ON goldinn, OE golden, OS far-goldan, OHG gi-goltan; PGmc *buranaz ‘carried, born’ (Goth.
Skt. ā́—and note that OHG snur has levelled in the other direction); OE ford, gsg. forda ‘ford’ < PGmc *furduz, *furdauz (OHG furt; see vol. (i), p. (i), p. ); and so on. Perhaps the most striking examples are the paradigms of ‘daughter’ and ‘ox’, given here in part: PGmc *duhtēr ‘daughter’, acc. sg. *duhterų, dat. sg. *duhtri (Goth. daúhtar, daúhtar, daúhtr) > *dohtēr, *dohterų, *duhtri ! *dohtēr, *dohterų, *dohtri >! ON dóttir, dóttur, dóttur; OE dohtor, dohtor, dœhter (> dehter); OF dochter, OS dohtar ~ -er, OHG tohter (all forms); The development of Northwest Germanic PGmc *uhsō¯ , acc.
But since there is evidence that the other word-ﬁnal long high vowel *-ī was shortened to *-i in PNWGmc, the latter hypothesis is the more economical of the two; the sequence of changes would have been: . word-ﬁnal *-ō > *-ū; . word-ﬁnal long high vowels were shortened in unstressed syllables. That is the hypothesis that I adopt. Both changes were mergers, though the rarity of PGmc word-ﬁnal *-ū made the structural consequences of the ﬁrst trivial. This has interesting consequences. , that there really was a more or less unitary PNWGmc language at some time.
The Development of Old English by Don Ringe, Ann Taylor