By Kenneth R. Kase
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Additional info for The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation. Volume I
This case is now treated, starting with a definition of primary and secondary particles. 48 GUDRUN ALM CARLSSON Primary particles are ionizing particles emitted from radiation sources (radioactive and excited nuclei). Secondary particles are those created in interactions with atomic electrons and nuclei. If radioactive and excited nuclei are thereby formed, these emit primary particles upon their subsequent decay or deexcitation. A primary particle emitted within an infinite medium is, together with all the generations of its secondary particles, completely stopped in it.
24 GUDRUN ALM CARLSSON Fig. 6. The number of particles with directions of motion Ω passing through the area element dA is the same as that passing through the area dA cos È perpendicular to Ω. dA is so small that the fluence can be considered to be constant over it. ] which can formally be written as a scalar product: Φ0 dA cos è = Φ0 · dA (30) where dA is the area vector perpendicular to dA and with its length | dA \ = dA. Note that when the angle between Ω and dA is acute, the scalar product is positive, while it is negative when the angle is obtuse.
The integration in Eq. * Spencer (1971), in his fundamental work on cavity theory based on equations of transport theory, arrived at an expression for absorbed dose which mathematically takes quite another form but physically has the same significance as Eq. (54). His function D(T) can be identified with Scol(T)kcol(T). B. PRACTICAL CALCULATIONS OF ABSORBED DOSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM REQUIRING COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FIELD OF CHARGED PARTICLES Although calculations of absorbed dose can be reduced to evaluating Eq.
The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation. Volume I by Kenneth R. Kase