By George McKenzie, Anthony J. Venables
The aim of the one ecu Act is to set up a ecu marketplace with out obstacles, thereby allowing the loose flow of products, people, companies and capital. to accomplish this finish the ecu fee has recommend a few three hundred directives to be carried out by means of 1 January 1993. The members to this quantity provide a severe evaluate of the most likely results of those measures for Europe as an entire and for the united kingdom economic system, in particular.
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Additional info for The Economics of the Single European Act
As Geroski points out, national standards often respond to a distinct national market need. Indeed Article 36 of the Rome Treaty even allows trade barriers for such purposes as the 'protection of health and life . ' but only so long as they are not 'disguised restrictions on trade'. European consumer lobbies broadly support free trade because of the lower prices and wider choice it brings; they argue that it is usually possible to distinguish phoney and genuine consumer protection rules. Baldwin suggests while trade liberalisation must not concern itself only with measures directly affecting trade, it should only aim to bother about measures which 'significantly' distort (whether to promote or restrict) trade.
For small firms the unpredictability of delays as well as the absolute cost can be significant. The sources of administrative burdens on trade are manifold, including the need to ensure correct tax treatment, the collection of statistics, regulations governing transport, the existence of national measures affecting imports from third countries coming via EC members, and the monitoring of a variety of technical or health regulations at borders. But the basic finding of the Cecchini study is that prices of identical or equivalent goods - net of tax - differ from market to market by much more than can be explained by these transactions costs.
G. Prais, 1978), and the sour industrial relations climate that they frequently create generally forces managers to pay higher wages to attract workers. g. see the case studies discussed in Prais, (1981». Indeed, UK performance appears to be inferior in those sectors where its plants are largest, particularly because of the poor performance of the large plants in those sectors (Caves and Davies, 1987, pp. 68). g Oulton, 1987). All of this ought to be familiar to the common man. The distribution of plant sizes that one observes in virtually every industry is enormous, even in industries where scale is thought to be important, and many mergers which are designed to exploit scale economies (or other sources of synergy) fail, leaving bloated and inefficient enterprises in their wake (for a careful study, see Cowling et al.
The Economics of the Single European Act by George McKenzie, Anthony J. Venables