By Carl Bartone, Urban Management Program
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Additional resources for Toward environmental strategies for cities: policy considerations for urban environmental management in Developing countries
The strategic planning process described in this paper has been successfully applied in many cities, and involves several activities: · informed consultation through which environmental issues are clarified, key actors are drawn in, political commitment is achieved, and local priorities are set; · the formulation of an overall urban environmental management strategy that provides long-term environmental goals and phased targets for meeting the goals, and agreement on issues-oriented strategies and actor-specific action plans for achieving the goals; and · follow-up and consolidation during which programs and projects are initiated and policy reforms and institutional arrangements are solidified.
These pressing problems are also related to what may be considered more properly the "green" and the "social" issues of urban areas, such as the depletion of water and forest resources, the degradation of environmentally fragile lands, the occupation of areas prone to flooding or landslides, overcrowding, degradation or loss of historical and cultural property, noise pollution and other problems. Similarly, the brown emissions of cities resulting from energy use for cooking, heating, industry, and transport contribute significantly to such "global" problems as climate change and acid rain.
It will be important for each city to identify its specific priorities and the policies and actions needed to address the most immediate issues. Poverty, Development, and the Environment v. Poverty, economic development, and the environment are inextricably linked. This linkage raises issues of equity (such as the willingness to pay for better environmental services and the issue of subsidizing basic urban services for the poor), and of the changing nature of environmental problems at different income levels.
Toward environmental strategies for cities: policy considerations for urban environmental management in Developing countries by Carl Bartone, Urban Management Program