By Geoffrey Lewis
Incorporating a lot new fabric, this new version of the traditional paintings offers an authoritative, lucid, and fascinating textual content, starting off each shape and development of pre- and post-reform Turkish which may be encountered in print, in addition to colloquial usages.
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Additional info for Turkish Grammar
34d) comes out worst, in line with (29d), next to (34c), again in line with (29c). In the remainder, I abandon the structure details in the tableau charts. (38c) and (38d) are clear enough. Only the constraints stay-x as well as stay-xp for the right periphery are relevant as all of the Optimality charts attest. Cf. (iii) in the Appendix above to the ranking of the constraints in German. (38c) shows that violation of pls, as for (30b), triggers the least reparable damage.
9 g. Inversion of ﬁnite auxiliaries or modal verbs across the non-ﬁnite full verb in the verb cluster (usually concomitant with inﬁnitivus pro participio-IPP/German Ersatzinﬁnitiv) need not indicate VO. More so, in three-elemental verb clusters of OV only verb ﬁrst inverts (all the way or partly), but never verb second and verb third (Abraham 1995, 1997). 10 h. OV-based verb projection raising in a dependent clause excludes a (raised) ﬁnite modal verb before an indeﬁnite object or an unstressed adverb.
The speciﬁer position of matrix CP is ﬁlled. No adjunction takes place to the highest node in a subordinate extended projection; and no movement takes place into the highest head of a subordinate extended projection. X0 -trace is not allowed. XP-trace is not allowed. The highest A-speciﬁer is structurally realized. There is no adjunction. (ii) Constraints and rankings not used in (25)–(27), but belonging to the linearization constraints in German (Engel 2004: 299) ADJCON: ADV<+FOC: Adjuncts are sisters to constituents which include phonetic material.
Turkish Grammar by Geoffrey Lewis