By Martin Krämer
On the middle of generative phonology lies the idea that the sounds of each language have summary underlying representations, which suffer a number of adjustments with a view to generate the 'surface' representations; that's, the sounds we really pronounce. The life, prestige and kind of underlying representations were hotly debated in phonological learn because the creation of the phoneme within the 19th century. This booklet presents a complete review of theories of the psychological illustration of the sounds of language. How does the brain shop and procedure phonological representations? Krämer surveys the advance of the idea that of underlying illustration over the past a hundred years or so in the box of generative phonology. He considers phonological styles, psycholinguistic experiments, statistical generalisations over info corpora and phenomena resembling hypercorrection. The e-book deals a brand new knowing of contrastive positive factors and proposes a amendment of the optimality-theoretic method of the iteration of underlying representations.
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Extra resources for Underlying Representations
Accordingly, we expect cases where we see the underlying consonant 46 u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t at i o n s on the surface but not the underlying vowel and vice versa. The question is whether we always get one form in which we observe both on the surface. Words like those in (6) are problematic, because the idiosyncratic /o/ and /e/, in the respective words, only surface in the nominative singular, which has a derived voiceless final obstruent. In the forms in which the obstruent surfaces as voiced, stress is on the suffix and the (second) vowel in the stem is neutralized.
Accordingly, we pick /stal/ as the underlying form and assume a rule that turns this /a/ into an [o] if it is stressed. Now either words with an a in stressed position (such as example b) or the morphemes showing the alternation have to be indexed for the blocking or application of the rule, respectively. Again, we need arbitrary non-phonological information in the underlying form. If one can’t determine the underlying form by ‘majority vote’ one needs another constraint to find it. One could at least expect to be able to pick out one surface form as the underlying form.
The first split in (11c) involves the feature [±stop] or [±continuant], dividing x from k, g and ŋ. The next cut divides the voiceless segments (x, k) from the voiced (g, ŋ). The last division then divides the voiced segments into oral and nasal. Thus inventories are built up in a step-wise fashion, as shown in (12). , [±stop]) k–g : already [+stop] also need [±voice] g–ŋ : already [+voice] also need [±nasal] Incremental splitting of sound systems can be expressed in a division tree (compare the discussion of Dresher and colleagues in Chapter 4 below).
Underlying Representations by Martin Krämer