By Dr John Rich, John Rich, Graham Shipley
This quantity makes a speciality of the altering courting among war and the Roman citizen physique, from the Republic, while battle used to be on the middle of Roman existence, via to the Principate, whilst it used to be restrained to expert squaddies and enlargement mostly ceased, and eventually directly to the past due Empire and the Roman army's eventual failure.
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Extra info for War and Society in the Roman World (Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society)
The Romans had fought a great many wars against their neighbours, but for most of their history they had been merely one of the more prominent of the cities in the plain of Latium. Quite suddenly, from about 343,1 all this changed, and in a period of just over seventy years the Romans fought their way to a position of mastery over the whole of Italy south of the Po valley. This success was followed by great wars, first against Carthage, and then against various Hellenistic kings. From all of these the Romans emerged victorious, and by the middle of the second century, contemporaries like Polybius recognized them as the undisputed masters of the Mediterranean world.
The idea dominating Greek states that conquerors had a perpetual right to a parasitical life at the expense of the conquered, an idea which precluded a healthy and permanent growth of the state, was rejected entirely at Rome. 1 Since Rome had not granted the full citizenship to Capua, her most powerful ally, by the time of her revolt in 216, the only reason for believing in a generous settlement in 338 is that she did not exact tribute from the defeated. That is quite true. 2 Most of Rome’s new allies lost their right to a foreign policy of their own, and those 1 Others who take a fundamentally pro-Roman view of this settlement include Toynbee 1965, i.
24). Fear, greed and glory 45 ceded Sicily (241) and Sardinia (238). What initial arrangements the Romans made for the control of these territories is uncertain, but from 227 two additional praetors were elected annually for this purpose. The Second Punic War (218–201) made unprecedented demands. 1 The war was conducted in several theatres— Italy, Spain, Sicily, Illyria and Greece, and eventually Africa—and in some of these the Romans had to deploy a number of armies. Thus in total the Romans mobilized far greater forces than they had ever done before, as the detailed information given by Livy shows.
War and Society in the Roman World (Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society) by Dr John Rich, John Rich, Graham Shipley