By Ellen E. Pastorino, Susann M Doyle-Portillo
With a powerful utilized concentration, what's PSYCHOLOGY? necessities, 2d variation, captures and holds scholars' cognizance from the 1st web page to the final. Ellen Pastorino and Susann Doyle-Portillo, award-winning psychology professors with an infectious enthusiasm for instructing, have stumbled on that scholars who're curious are prompted to discover and actually learn the way mental innovations are hooked up. this article accommodates the authors' profitable and fascinating educating procedure, unlocking scholars' interest with compelling, chapter-opening tales of genuine people who exhibit scholars how psychology impacts their daily lives. Embedded critical-thinking questions encourage scholars to proceed making connections among own tales, functions to their very own lives, and mental techniques they're going to use outdoors of the study room. variety is addressed in each bankruptcy via integration of problems with gender, race, tradition, ethnicity, and sexuality.
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Extra info for What Is Psychology? Essentials
Cognitive c. Developmental b. Social d. Personality Answers 1. d; 2. b; 3. b; 4. d © History of American Psychology, U. of Akron, Akron, Ohio W h a t I s P s yc h o l o g y ? John Watson O Psychology is the scientiﬁc study of behavior and mental processes. O Early psychologists adopted several approaches: Q Structuralism: identify the elements of mental processes Q Functionalism: identify the purpose of behavior © Bettmann/Corbis 18 William James Q Psychoanalysis: uncover unconscious motivations Q Behaviorism: examine the inﬂuence of the environment O Today, psychology is a ﬁeld of diverse perspectives: Q Biological: physical aspects of behavior Q Evolutionary: how behavior helps us to adapt and survive Q Cognitive: the inﬂuence of mental processes on behavior Q Psychodynamic: the inﬂuence of unconscious forces on behavior Q Behavioral: the inﬂuence of the environment on behavior Q Sociocultural: studies behaviors across diverse groups and cultures Q Humanistic: behavior stems from choices and free will O Most psychologists take an eclectic approach, integrating several perspectives to explain behavior.
May develop materials and strategies to enhance learning. Clinical psychology Researches, assesses, and treats children, adolescents, and adults who are experiencing difﬁculty in functioning or who have a serious mental health disorder such as schizophrenia. Counseling psychology Researches, assesses, and treats children, adolescents, and adults who are experiencing adjustment difﬁculties. School psychology Assesses students’ psychoeducational abilities and shares test results with teachers and parents to help them make decisions regarding the best educational placement for students.
It looks at how stimuli in our environment and/or the rewards and punishments we receive inﬂuence our behavior. This approach suggests that behavior is learned and is inﬂuenced by other people and events. For example, if a student studies and then aces an exam, that reward may encourage her to study again the next time. If she only gets an average score, merely passing the test may not be rewarding enough to encourage the student to study for future exams. This perspective stems from Watson’s and Skinner’s behaviorist views (more on this in Chapter 5).
What Is Psychology? Essentials by Ellen E. Pastorino, Susann M Doyle-Portillo